Nile Delta

Nile Delta

The Nile delta is situated in northern Egypt, where the river Nile reaches the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile is the longest river in the world. It originates near the equator and flows nearly 7000 km northward. The Delta begins approximately 20 km north of Cairo and extends North for about 150 km. At the coast the delta is about 250 km wide, from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east. The area of the Nile Delta is about 20.000 km2. The Nile Valley and the Nile Delta rank among the world's most fertile farming areas and are surrounded by a highly arid environment.

Consequently, the delta is densely populated. Some 50% of the Egyptian polulation (exclusive of Cairo) lives in the Nile Delta.

Text Source: Prof. dr. H. de Vriend, Deltares (Delft, January 11, 2009), Towards sustainable development of deltas: Aquaterra research on trends and responses.

Image Source: U.S. Geological Survey

General characteristics

  • Continent: Africa
  • Location: 31°44’N, 30°42’E
  • Basin of deposition: Mediterranean Sea
  • Delta area (km2): 12512
  • Number of river mouths: 2
  • Spring Tide (m): 0.43
  • Population (millions): 40
  • Basin area (10^3 km2): 3038.1
  • River length (km): 4
  • Average rainfall (mm/y): 664
  • Maximum rainfall (mm/y): 2703
  • Minimum rainfall (mm/y): 1
  • Annual average discharge (m3/s): 2778
  • Maximum discharge (m3/s): 7692
  • Minimum discharge (m3/s): 979

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